Monthly Archive June 2018

Apple, Gravity and Two Adamant Men

Years before our time man often used to wonder about the reason for the motion of planets, change of seasons and reason for every day’s entry and exit of sun but trapped on a subtle planet poorly resourced only logical explanation with them was god planned it that way.
Years later a god loving young man descended on earth on God’s own birthday to challenge his role in the motion of astronomical bodies. Isaac Newton from quite early age started getting more close to nature than to people reason was separation from his mother at age of three and then after eight her coming back bringing him stepfather. Newton started drifting away from his family and closer to the universe. At eighteen he joined Trinity college at Cambridge. Seclusion and isolation germinated strange habits in that young man at Trinity. He started looking for techniques to transform ordinary metals into gold and silver. He was also obsessed with looking for codes and clues in religious texts as Bible for the presence of God but of course, both of his endeavors turned out to be fruitless.
In 1672 Newton was elected to royal society and in the same year he presented his first paper that was on nature of light while Newton believed light to be composed of particles his senior in royal society Robert Hooke believed it to be composed of waves so Hooke criticized Newton to an extent that Newton pledged not to come with another idea publicly ever again and as at that time Hooke was a reputed scientist whereas Newton was a novice nobody really missed him.
After some years Edmond Halley visited Newton and casually started discussing coming with any mathematical equation to explain gravity and Newton at the same instant gave the equation that was worked out by him a few years back but never presented due to previous humiliation. Edmond Halley quickly presented Newton’s law of gravitation to royal society. Although royal society acclaimed the work but stated their inability to print it because they were out of funds. Royal society had spent all the fund in printing numerous copies of a worthless book titled history of fish. Conditions were so worse that salaries of scientists as Edmond Haley were paid in form of copies of book History of fish.
Edmond Halley was not a man to accept no so he decided to get Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica published by himself
Edmond Haley while regarded and revered astronomer giving world sacks full of scientific knowledge is most commonly remembered as the man who gave Newton fame of eternity and world wonderful knowledge of gravity which came out escaping ego of two brilliant minds of a seventeenth century
Courtesy: cosmos a spacetime odyssey

The French Paradox

Paradox as a word means ‘A statement that apparently contradicts itself and yet might be true.’
No passing year was able to solve an unsolvable mystery that French in spite of taking so high calories how managed to remain skinny, thin and healthy. According to a number of surveys worldwide it was always found a proportional relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and intake of saturated fatty acids and alcohol. Only French managed to remain somehow immune to this direct relationship. This observation was now being called as ‘The French Paradox’.
One of the major explanation that was proffered to explain French paradox was homogenous drinking habit of French. French were known for drinking culture which remains consistent throughout the week in comparison to other cultures where majority drinking happens during weekends. It was noticed that red wine when taken in the moderate amount whole week resulted in protection against coronary heart disease whereas if taken inconsistently led to high cholesterol disorders and hence coronary heart diseases. Researchers further suggested that red wine consisted of tannins and flavonoids which are known for their protective functions.
Further, it was observed that French dinner and lunch are rich in high fibers such as beans, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Meat and other high cholesterol diet were often accompanied with salads, stews, fruits, and soups. French was also known for taking the high amount of unsaturated fats as olive oil, olive and nuts. Nuts were known to have the high amount of healthy antioxidant Resveratrol known to act against arteries blockage.
It was also seen that French have high cultural values associated with eating habits. French were known to treat food as the medium for pleasure instead of the way for survival. They were known to eat home cooked food and take time while eating, don’t snack and drinking while meals and in limited quantity. These basic attitudes were surviving even today and were expected to be one of the most important reasons for The French Paradox.
Even after nearly thirty years when the concept of The French Paradox was introduced to the world it still remained the object of interest and research among scientists and philosophers worldwide. Many arguments were presented to explain the paradox but still much is required to explore till then keep envying.

Nice guys don’t finish last…

It’s quite an old adage ‘Nice Guys Finish Last’ and its reiterated multiple times to emphasize the value of selfishness in the organic world, but the truth is certainly not what it seems, at least not according to game theory.
Many of us may be aware of game theory’s famous prisoner’s dilemma and if you aren’t then it’s nothing but simply a game where two players are asked to move simultaneously. If they choose to cooperate both are rewarded; if they deflect both are punished; and in case if one chooses to deflect and another choose to cooperate then later one will be punished (here punishment is graver than mutually deflection scenario) while former will be rewarded (here award is more than in cooperation scenario) so overall there are four possible scenarios.
Now it’s quite logical to cooperate in every stance because both of you are expected to gain in that case but not for a rational man who assume that if another player will choose to cooperate then best strategy with him is to deflect and if another player chooses to deflect in that case too best strategy for him is to deflect so no matter what he will deflect in every case. Bad luck for him another player is similar rational being capable of thinking on the similar lines so his actions will be similar. As a result, both players will deflect every time.
What if the game will not stop and will continue for several rounds then players will deviate from their selfish behavior because they know that if they will choose to cheat now they will be punished later but how selfless an individual should be if the game goes on.
A study was conducted inviting different strategies for the same game from a large number of computer programmers; mathematicians and evolutionary biologists, 63 to be exact where every strategy was either good or bad. Good strategies ranged from ‘No matter whatever you will do, I will always cooperate’ to ‘Tit for Tat’ and bad strategies ranged from ‘No matter whatever you will do, I will always deflect’ to ‘Randomly deflecting after 9 moves and then resuming good behavior’. Strategies based on their win or loss were awarded points and it was seen after 200 rounds that good strategies were always performing better than bad strategies and ‘Tit for Tat’ no matter how simple it looked, was the clear winner.
Different species in nature are required to participate in interspecies and intraspecies cooperation so it’s always lucrative to utilize services from another and never pay back. In that case, losers or softies slowly become extinct due to continued backstabbing after those cheaters are left with no one to cheat because another group of individuals whose motto is ‘To reward a friend and to punish a cheater’ punish the cheaters for their acts and slowly cheaters also become extinct. ‘Tit for Tat’ is the best strategy that’s being allowed by natural selection.
It’s assumed that our intellectual capability and our mental facility are nor for doing complex algorithms or differential calculus it’s just to bestow us with a power to differentiate friend from cheaters.
A huge gratitude to John Nash who passed away recently on 23rd May 2015 whose work on game theory explained how being a nice guy or gal is not so bad after all. Wondering if this is what we can call ‘Karma’